Em slowenien

em slowenien

Jan. Nach dem abgewiesenen Protest gegen die Wertung des Spiels gegen Deutschland () hat der slowenische Handballverband. Jan. Der Handball-EM bleibt ein Fiasko erspart: Trotz des zweimal abgelehnten Protestes gegen die Wertung des Deutschland-Spiels bleiben. Jan. Der WM-Dritte Slowenien und Tschechien haben bei der Handball-EM in Kroatien das Halbfinale verpasst. Beide Teams trennten sich in ihrem.

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A party with grills, American BBQ, cowboy boots, country music, line dance, pony rides, and…. US and Slovenian students came together to make a great internship program!

The 7th annual SEI program is aimed at giving university students a…. It is tradition to celebrate Independence Day with fireworks — either….

The education system, schools and school life in the United States were the topics that Gimnazija Koper students were most interested in discussing during our….

At the end of May, U. Embassy Ljubljana hosted Dr. In , Yugoslavia was liberated by the partisan resistance and soon became a socialist federation known as the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership. The small Jewish community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje region, perished in in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews.

The German speaking minority, amounting to 2. Hundreds of Istrian Italians and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the foibe massacres , and more than 25, fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria in the aftermath of the war.

A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito—Stalin split in , economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the rest of the Eastern Bloc.

After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from —53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management , was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj , the main ideologue of the Titoist path to socialism.

Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to Goli otok.

The late s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere, as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again.

Until the s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. Particularly in the s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised.

With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in —66, Slovenia's domestic product was 2. Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in , when the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained.

In a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off.

A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights , pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.

In September , numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers.

In December , a new constitution was adopted, [82] followed in by the laws on denationalisation and privatization. Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission , and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone the first transition country to do so on 1 January It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union , for the first six months of The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the — Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October protests.

Slovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east.

Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: The term " Karst topography " refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau , a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean.

On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. The areas are covered mostly by beech , fir -beech and beech- oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity.

Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate , which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise.

Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions: According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions.

These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains and climate types submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate.

Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park.

Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea.

In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails.

In the coastal region, there is sub- Mediterranean climate. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.

Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries.

Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral.

Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia.

Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind. The territory of Slovenia mainly 16, square kilometers or 6, square miles, i.

These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.

One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia.

But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.

Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June and became a party to the convention on 9 July Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats, [] due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences.

There are numerous deer , roe deer , boar , and hares. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.

Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx , [] [] European wild cats , foxes especially the red fox , and European jackal. According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c.

Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species. The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl , the long-eared owl , the eagle owl , hawks , and short-toed eagles.

Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens , crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.

There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia, [] of eight species hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle.

Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish. More than 2, fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia [] and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher.

Many more remain to be discovered. Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe, [] with In the mountains, spruce , fir , and pine are more common.

Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau , although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The tree line is at 1, to 1, metres 5, to 5, feet.

In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana , gentians Gentiana clusii , Gentiana froelichi , Primula auricula , edelweiss the symbol of Slovene mountaineering , Cypripedium calceolus , Fritillaria meleagris snake's head fritillary , and Pulsatilla grandis are found.

Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus , Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.

Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president , who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role.

He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian armed forces. The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia , characterised by an asymmetric duality.

Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation , whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities.

Election takes place every four years. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach.

The — period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates.

The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Generally, some economists estimate that left and right parties attributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; reason behind was that each block tried to establish economic elite which will support political forces.

Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges , who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas.

The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences.

The Constitutional Court , composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.

The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements.

Since conscription was abolished in , it is organized as a fully professional standing army. In , military spending was an estimated 0.

They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Kosovo , and Afghanistan.

Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into municipalities eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities.

The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation ; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system.

In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town or city councils. There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia.

The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" upravne enote , are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices.

Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola , Carinthia , Styria , and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral , Prekmurje , and even traditional sub regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.

The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union.

Since , it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction.

The financial crisis of — and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population.

In August , the year-on-year contraction was 0. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity , to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of , [] to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms , to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.

Due to the effects of the crisis it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in , however needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds.

Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September amounted to 15, million euros, A story about Slovenia allegedly being in need of a bailout was attributed by Finland's Europe Minister Alexander Stubb to "financial sharks" who wanted to capitalize on the story by creating self-fulfilling prophecies.

Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.

By , the A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage.

Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small.

Other mountain ranges include Kamnik—Savinja Alps , the Karawanks , and Pohorje , popular with skiers and hikers. The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst , a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves.

The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor , are renowned for their wine-making. Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism.

Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: In , Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations.

The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia.

Their course was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe and X linking Central Europe with the Balkans in the country.

This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring. The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network.

The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport, [] with almost , TEUs annually [] and lines to all major world ports.

Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Air transport in Slovenia is quite low, [] but has significantly grown since Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.

In , the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per , persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.

The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:.

The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other medium-sized towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj. The official language in Slovenia is Slovene , which is a member of the South Slavic language group.

Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects , [] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility.

Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven [] [] [] dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.

Hungarian and Italian , spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual.

In around 0. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities whereof 3 are officially bilingual.

Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities all of them officially bilingual. Romani , [] spoken in as the native language by 0.

Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community. A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , or Montenegrin as their native language.

These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the s to the late s, and their descendants. Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries.

By the beginning of there were about , people with a foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.

The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from [] and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in , the annual number of immigrants doubled by and increased by half yet again by As to emigration, between and World War I many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations.

The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the US Census showing that there were already ", persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".

These areas attracted first many single men who often boarded with Slovenian families. Then after locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.

Religion in Slovenia census [outdated] []. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia.

After , the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches.

After , the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the census, A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.

Primoz Trubar , a theologian in the Lutheran tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers in Slovenia. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburg dynasty , which controlled the region.

It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves.

Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje , where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.

Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present.

Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust , Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.

According to the census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia.

Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union , being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment.

Lifelong learning is also increasing. Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports.

After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six. In the academic year — there were , pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13, teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.

The latter concludes with matura , the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. Slovenia has a widespread and diverse architectural heritage, including 2, churches, 1, castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures for drying hay, called hayracks kozolci.

The Idrija Mercury mining site is of world importance, as are the prehistoric pile dwellings in the Ljubljana Marshes. The most picturesque church is the medieval and Baroque building on Bled Island.

The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant with a view. Near Postojna there is a fortress called the Predjama Castle , half hidden in a cave.

Museums in Ljubljana and elsewhere feature unique items such as the Divje Babe Flute and the oldest wheel in the world.

Omar Naber took part in technical rehearsals on 1 May and 5 May, followed by dress rehearsals on 8 and 9 May.

At the end of the show, Slovenia was not announced among the top 10 entries in the first semi-final and therefore failed to qualify to compete in the final.

The following five members comprised the Slovenian jury: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Slovenia in the Eurovision Song Contest.

Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 20 July EMA participants and dates revealed". Retrieved 4 December Amaya se je veselila nastopa na EMI ".

Clemens to replace Amaya in EMA ". Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 30 April Israel Calling to be held with 28 participating countries".

Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 9 May

Em slowenien -

Juli um Entschlossener, aber nach wie vor beeindruckt von der slowenischen Härte, ging das Prokop-Team die entscheidenden 30 Minuten an. Gegen die USA reichte es nach 2: Mit zwei Siegen in den beiden letzten Spielen wurde der dritte Platz gesichert, so dass sie in den Playoffspielen der Gruppendritten noch die Chance hatten, sich für die Endrunde zu qualifizieren. In den Relegationsspielen am Nachbarn Kroatien gescheitert.

Em Slowenien Video

Handball EM: Deutschlands umstrittener Siebenmeter gegen Slowenien In der Qualifikation an Italien und Casino zollverein mieten gescheitert. Man Beste Spielothek in Lößlberg finden sich keine Sorgen machen ", sagte der Keeper. Auf die laufende Europameisterschaft hat dies jedoch keinen Einfluss mehr, die Wertung der Partie Beste Spielothek in Oberrothan finden Deutschland ist endgültig. Ich habe huuuge casino resources generator deutsch entschieden. Both teams were matched all the time until Denmark started directing their movements to the victory.

Add in the pleasant Alpine climate, the power of the lake water springs and the delicious Bled cream slice. The paradise image of Bled will capture your heart!

You can step into the shoes of a true Dolenjska local and discover the charm of the unique vineyard cottages. An excellent choice for small groups for meetings and other business events!

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The Slovenian Tourist Board media library has many high-resolution photos and videos relevant to tourism in Slovenia available for professional use.

You may transfer the desired photographs or videos free of charge for all publications promoting Slovenia as a tourist destination, whether in Slovenia or abroad, in accordance with these rules.

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Map Favourites Stay Business site Homepage. Feel the power of the therapeutic water Explore. Piran and salt pans Piran, the most beautiful town of Mediterranean Slovenia.

Piran and salt pans More. Postojna cave Postojna Cave and Predjama Castle are world-class attractions! Bled Bled is the most famous tourist destination in Slovenia and the jewel of the Julian Alps.

Lipica Lipica is an important cradle of Lipizzaner horses on a Europe-wide level. Spas and health resorts Rest, relax and enjoy the soothing power of thermal waters and wellness treatments.

Spas and health resorts More. Slovenia at a glance. Currency The Slovenian currency is the Euro. Communication In addition to Slovenian, most people in Slovenia speak English.

Arriving in Slovenia It takes 2 hours to fly from London to Ljubljana. Distances In Slovenia, you can swim in the sea in the morning and climb mountains in the afternoon.

Discover the charms of autumn Let autumn in Slovenia warm your heart. St Martin's Day Celebration, joy at the new wine vintage More.

Cycling among Vineyards Take a ride on a bike on the popular Slovenian wine routes. Cycling among Vineyards More. Active and relaxed holidays Enjoy and relax in thermal springs, explore the authentic and exquisite cuisine, where it is only a step from the farm to the table, and go for a ramble in green nature.

Top experiences for golf lovers Play golf in Slovenia and enjoy a number of other unforgettable experiences in the vicinity of golf courses.

Top experiences for golf lovers More. Rambling through the colourful setting of autumn Spend an active autumn in hiking boots. Rambling through the colourful setting of autumn More.

The education system, schools and school life in the United States were the topics that Gimnazija Koper students were most interested in discussing during our….

At the end of May, U. Embassy Ljubljana hosted Dr. Linda Holzer for a music exchange program in Slovenia. Holzer is a pianist and….

This year the topic was Pollinators and the Pollinated and timed follow…. We visited seven Slovenian schools in May!

Marine Security Guards Sgt. Eddie Montano and Cpl. Footer Disclaimer This is the official website of the U. Following a plebiscite in October , the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria.

With the Treaty of Trianon , on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary.

Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states—Italy, Austria, and Hungary—were subjected to assimilation.

Axis forces invaded Yugoslavia in April and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Ljubljana, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country.

In addition, some 46, Slovenes were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families.

The Slovene language was banned from education, and its use in the public life was limited to the absolute minimum. After the resistance started in summer , Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well.

The Italian authorities deported some 25, people to the concentration camps , which equaled 7. The most infamous ones were Rab and Gonars.

To counter the Communist-led insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed mostly by the local conservative Catholic Slovene population that resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans.

They united the Slovene anti-Communist counter-insurgence into the Slovene Home Guard and appointed a puppet regime in the Province of Ljubljana.

The anti-Nazi resistance however expanded, creating its own administrative structures as the basis for Slovene statehood within a new, federal and socialist Yugoslavia.

In , Yugoslavia was liberated by the partisan resistance and soon became a socialist federation known as the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership. The small Jewish community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje region, perished in in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews.

The German speaking minority, amounting to 2. Hundreds of Istrian Italians and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the foibe massacres , and more than 25, fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria in the aftermath of the war.

A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito—Stalin split in , economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the rest of the Eastern Bloc.

After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from —53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management , was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj , the main ideologue of the Titoist path to socialism.

Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to Goli otok.

The late s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere, as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again.

Until the s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. Particularly in the s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised.

With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in —66, Slovenia's domestic product was 2. Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in , when the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained.

In a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off.

A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights , pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.

In September , numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers.

In December , a new constitution was adopted, [82] followed in by the laws on denationalisation and privatization.

Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission , and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone the first transition country to do so on 1 January It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union , for the first six months of The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the — Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October protests.

Slovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east.

Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: The term " Karst topography " refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau , a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean.

On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. The areas are covered mostly by beech , fir -beech and beech- oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity.

Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate , which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise.

Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions: According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions.

These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains and climate types submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate.

Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes.

The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails.

In the coastal region, there is sub- Mediterranean climate. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.

Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries.

Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral.

Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia.

Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind. The territory of Slovenia mainly 16, square kilometers or 6, square miles, i.

These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.

One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.

Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June and became a party to the convention on 9 July Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats, [] due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences.

There are numerous deer , roe deer , boar , and hares. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.

Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx , [] [] European wild cats , foxes especially the red fox , and European jackal.

According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c. Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species.

The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl , the long-eared owl , the eagle owl , hawks , and short-toed eagles.

Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens , crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.

There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia, [] of eight species hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.

More than 2, fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia [] and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher.

Many more remain to be discovered. Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe, [] with In the mountains, spruce , fir , and pine are more common.

Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau , although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest.

The tree line is at 1, to 1, metres 5, to 5, feet. In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana , gentians Gentiana clusii , Gentiana froelichi , Primula auricula , edelweiss the symbol of Slovene mountaineering , Cypripedium calceolus , Fritillaria meleagris snake's head fritillary , and Pulsatilla grandis are found.

Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus , Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.

Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president , who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role.

He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian armed forces. The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia , characterised by an asymmetric duality.

Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation , whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities.

Election takes place every four years. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The — period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU.

There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum.

The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Generally, some economists estimate that left and right parties attributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; reason behind was that each block tried to establish economic elite which will support political forces.

Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges , who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas.

The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences.

The Constitutional Court , composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.

The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in , it is organized as a fully professional standing army.

In , military spending was an estimated 0. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities.

Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Kosovo , and Afghanistan.

Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into municipalities eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities. The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia.

In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation ; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system.

In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town or city councils. There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia.

The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" upravne enote , are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices.

Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola , Carinthia , Styria , and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral , Prekmurje , and even traditional sub regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.

The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union.

Since , it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction.

The financial crisis of — and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population.

In August , the year-on-year contraction was 0. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity , to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of , [] to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms , to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.

Due to the effects of the crisis it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in , however needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds.

Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September amounted to 15, million euros, A story about Slovenia allegedly being in need of a bailout was attributed by Finland's Europe Minister Alexander Stubb to "financial sharks" who wanted to capitalize on the story by creating self-fulfilling prophecies.

Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.

By , the A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage. Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities.

Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small.

Other mountain ranges include Kamnik—Savinja Alps , the Karawanks , and Pohorje , popular with skiers and hikers. The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst , a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves.

The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor , are renowned for their wine-making. Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism.

Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: In , Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations.

The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia.

Their course was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe and X linking Central Europe with the Balkans in the country.

This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring. The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network.

The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport, [] with almost , TEUs annually [] and lines to all major world ports.

Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Air transport in Slovenia is quite low, [] but has significantly grown since Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.

In , the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per , persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.

The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:.

The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other medium-sized towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj. The official language in Slovenia is Slovene , which is a member of the South Slavic language group.

Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects , [] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility.

Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven [] [] [] dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.

Hungarian and Italian , spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual.

In around 0. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities whereof 3 are officially bilingual.

Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities all of them officially bilingual. Romani , [] spoken in as the native language by 0.

Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community. A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , or Montenegrin as their native language.

These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the s to the late s, and their descendants.

Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries.

By the beginning of there were about , people with a foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5. The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from [] and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years.

After Slovenia joined the EU in , the annual number of immigrants doubled by and increased by half yet again by As to emigration, between and World War I many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations.

The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the US Census showing that there were already ", persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".

These areas attracted first many single men who often boarded with Slovenian families. Then after locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.

Religion in Slovenia census [outdated] []. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After , the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization.

After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches.

After , the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society.

According to the census, A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region. Primoz Trubar , a theologian in the Lutheran tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers in Slovenia.

Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburg dynasty , which controlled the region. It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves.

Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje , where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.

Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust , Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.

According to the census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.

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